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Aperu sur l'origine des Soninks

Notre objectif dans cette brve rflexion nest nullement de donner une tude exhaustive de lorigine des Sonink. Ce sujet pourrait, de fait, faire lobjet dune recherche beaucoup plus large et complte pouvant permettre aux lecteurs -chercheurs davoir une connaissance plus ou moins suffisante dans ce domaine. Ici il sagit donc de donner une ide, un aperu travers quelques versions que nous avons arbitrairement retenues pour tayer notre propos. A la fin de cet article, nous donnerons une indication bibliographique sommaire lintention de celles / ceux qui dsireraient approfondir la rflexion.

En effet, les versions faisant tat de lorigine des Sonink sont lgion.

  1. Dans leur ouvrage intitul LEmpire du Ghana, le Wagadou et les traditions du Yrr, Germaine DIETERLEN et Diara SYLLA affirment que Dinga, anctre mythique des Sonink, dit Kare (ancien, patriarche) est n en Egypte Sonna, nom que les Sonink donnaient Assouan . Ce qui pourrait signifier notre avis que les Sonink seraient originaires de la Haute Egypte, dans une rgion appele Sonni, et, dans ce cas prcis, le terme de Sonink signifierait habitant de Sonni;
  2. La tradition orale sonink rapporte, par la voix des griots, quun homme nomm Dinga aurait travers le Sahara dEst en Ouest avec une troupe, et se serait install dans le sud de la Mauritanie. Par la suite, son fils Diab se serait descendu plus au Sud sur le conseil dune vielle hyne et dun vieux vautour. Il sest finalement install dans une localit appele Wagadou, nom que portait lempire sonink au Moyen Age;
  3. De lavis de Quintin, les Sonink appartenaient tous lethnie Songhay. Au dbut, ils ne formaient quune branche de dynastie, les Sonni, mais, lorsque celleci fut chasse du pouvoir Gao par lAskia Mohammad en 1493, de nombreux partisans appartenant aux principales familles de lancienne monarchie, les Bakiri et les Dyawara, entre autres, migrrent avec elle, et le nom de sonink (ceux de Sonni) dsigna bientt toutes les familles fugitives. Les Sonni taient dorigine trangre, probablement berbre, ce qui expliquerait le teint clair des Sonink. Cette hypothse fut combattue ds 1885 par Tautin.
  4. Une autre explication, qui na pas donn lieu grand commentaire, fait venir le nom de Sonink de leur ancien interdit alimentaire, qui portait sur le lamantin, sonni en leur langue.
  5. Charles Monteil a de son ct identifi ce nom avec des Zenaga, crit Sanhadja par les auteurs arabes. Cette hypothse fut son tour combattue par Maurice Delafosse en ces termes : dabord il serait tonnant que, si les deux noms taient identiques, les Maures eussent conserv la forme Zenaga pour dsigner les Berbres vivant ct deux et adopt une autre forme, Assouanik, pour dsigner les Sonink ; ensuite il y a entre les deux noms des diffrences phontiques relles, particulirement en ce qui concerne la premire voyelle, laquelle a toujours t crite a et prononce a ou par les Arabes dans le nom de Zenaga (Sanhadja, Sanaga, Zenaga), tandis quelle est nettement o ou ou dans Sonink.

Bibliographie

  • BATHILY, Abdoulaye, les Portes de l'or, Paris, Harmattan, 1989
  • BOYER, G. Un peuple de l'ouest africain : les Diawara, mmoire n 29, IFAN, 1953
  • CLAUDE. Meillassaux et L. Doucour, La lgende de la dispersion des Kusa (pope sonink), IFAN, 1967
  • CHARLES. Monteil, La lgende de Wagadou , in Bulletin de LIFAN, n 1- 2 Janv. Avril 1967
  • E. Pollet et G. Winter, Les Soninks, Ed. Universit de Bruxelles, 1971
  • DIAWARA, Mamadou, La graine de la parole, F. Steiner Suttgar, 1990
  • CLAUDE Meillassaux, La lgende de Wagadou, l'origine des Soninks n 23, IFAN, 1953
  • CHARLES. Monteil, Mlanges sonink
  • BATHILY. A., Lexique sonink (Sarakol)- franais
  • MAURICE. Delafosse, Haut Sngal- Niger, Maisonneuve et Larose
  • Qui sommes- nous, les Soninks, Orature n1
  • FOFANA, Samba, Structure et dynamique socio- politique en milieu sonink, mmoire de Matrise, universit de Nouakchott, 2004
  • TANDIA, K. Aliou, Posie orale et ducation traditionnelle, Dakar, NEA, 1999

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Cr le :03/03/10
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  • Lass24 16/09/2017 -22h32Bien que les soninkes etaient les residents de Assouan en Egypte ancienne , la langue elle meme semble remonter depuis la prehistoire . En effet les recherches les plus recentes du professeur clyde winters et Vomos Thoth parlant de la civilisation post -deluge qui s est formee dans le haut Sahara appellee Confederation du Maa .
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  • sylla Omar. les soninkho 10/05/2015 -01h08Les soninkho c'tait des familles qui composent premire maison de Rome leurs enceintes parvient au consulat en 290 et en 277 avant j-c mais qu'il fut moins connus par cette lvation que pars la fletrissure .mon grand cout les carrires et politique en 105 avant j-c en Afrique en qualit de lgat il mne alors les ngociations secrtes qui conduiront son gnral Maurice a la victoire c'est cette Maurice que aujourd'hui on la falsifier il est devenue Mauritanie. Faite vous la recherche en cord vois y votre premier conclusion
  • gaye camara a rosso 11/01/2011 -09h49slt je suis tres content mon frre de tout ce que tu as fait pour les enfants de soninke , tu ouvres la porte de connaissance ethnique
  • Gidimaxanke 12/05/2010 -13h45Des tudes rcentes ont montr que les Habitants actuels d'Assouan en Egypte ont une trs grande proximit culturelle et linguistique avec les Sonink!
    Leurs Anciens ont mme affirm que le lieu s'appelait Soni avant l'arrive des Arabes en Egypte!
    Comme quoi l'hypothse qui ferait descendre les Soninks des Berbres me parat fantaisite et dnu de tout sens , la lumire mme des dernires recherches historiographiques!
    Bonne continuation pour ton Site mon frre, et que Dieu nous claire de son infinie Sagesse!
  • Oumar 09/04/2010 -19h58Salut mon frere merci de toutes ses informations. Et du courage pour tout ce ke tu entreprend pour nous donner le peu de savoir sur nos anceintre. Peace & love a toi. Ton frere Baradji de Sinfra
  • ousmane kodore 22/03/2010 -13h25stl frre je suis trs content, je te signale que tu es sur une trs bonne voie et du curage car aujourdhuit tu donne une trs belle image des etudes pour tous les enfants des soninkos
  • mahamadou kodo 16/03/2010 -16h24a se voit que tu es un intellectuel organique en racin dans le fond de ta culture.je ne peux que te souhaiter courage pour ta contribution l'union des soniks bien que nous soyons parpiller un partout dans le monde nous avons tous en commun des traits gnraux comme le gout de l'aventure la dcouverte la de l'autre, la discipline le respect de soi et de l'autre.mon frre,tu as du gnie en toi liber le au service des soninkos.
  • SILLY bOSKO 14/03/2010 -14h22slt sur l'origine des soninks il y'a aussi une autre version orale qui veut que l'origine soit dans la region d'assouan qe qui est l'origine du nom "assouaninko" "soninko".
    Bref c'est de l'histoire donc les versions different donc utilisez une bonne dose d'objectivit.
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