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Aperçu sur l'origine des Soninkés

Notre objectif dans cette brève réflexion n’est nullement de donner une étude exhaustive de l’origine des Soninké. Ce sujet pourrait, de fait, faire l’objet d’une recherche beaucoup plus large et complète pouvant permettre aux lecteurs -chercheurs d’avoir une connaissance plus ou moins suffisante dans ce domaine. Ici il s’agit donc de donner une idée, un aperçu à travers quelques versions que nous avons arbitrairement retenues pour étayer notre propos. A la fin de cet article, nous donnerons une indication bibliographique sommaire à l’intention de celles / ceux qui désireraient approfondir la réflexion.

En effet, les versions faisant état de l’origine des Soninké sont légion.

  1. Dans leur ouvrage intitulé L’Empire du Ghana, le Wagadou et les traditions du Yéréré, Germaine DIETERLEN et Diara SYLLA affirment que « Dinga, ancêtre mythique des Soninké, dit Kare (ancien, patriarche) est né en Egypte à Sonna, nom que les Soninké donnaient à Assouan ». Ce qui pourrait signifier à notre avis que les Soninké seraient originaires de la Haute Egypte, dans une région appelée Sonni, et, dans ce cas précis, le terme de Soninké signifierait habitant de Sonni;
  2. La tradition orale soninké rapporte, par la voix des griots, qu’un homme nommé Dinga aurait traversé le Sahara d’Est en Ouest avec une troupe, et se serait installé dans le sud de la Mauritanie. Par la suite, son fils Diabé se serait descendu plus au Sud sur le conseil d’une vielle hyène et d’un vieux vautour. Il s’est finalement installé dans une localité appelée Wagadou, nom que portait l’empire soninké au Moyen Age;
  3. De l’avis de Quintin, les Soninké appartenaient tous à l’ethnie Songhay. Au début, ils ne formaient qu’une branche de dynastie, les Sonni, mais, lorsque celle–ci fut chassée du pouvoir à Gao par l’Askia Mohammad en 1493, de nombreux partisans appartenant aux principales familles de l’ancienne monarchie, les Bakiri et les Dyawara, entre autres, émigrèrent avec elle, et le nom de soninké (ceux de Sonni) désigna bientôt toutes les familles fugitives. Les Sonni étaient d’origine étrangère, probablement berbère, ce qui expliquerait le teint clair des Soninké. Cette hypothèse fut combattue dès 1885 par Tautin.
  4. Une autre explication, qui n’a pas donné lieu à grand commentaire, fait venir le nom de Soninké de leur ancien interdit alimentaire, qui portait sur le lamantin, sonni en leur langue.
  5. Charles Monteil a de son côté identifié ce nom avec des Zenaga, écrit Sanhadja par les auteurs arabes. Cette hypothèse fut à son tour combattue par Maurice Delafosse en ces termes : d’abord il serait étonnant que, si les deux noms étaient identiques, les Maures eussent conservé la forme Zenaga pour désigner les Berbères vivant à côté d’eux et adopté une autre forme, Assouanik, pour désigner les Soninké ; ensuite il y a entre les deux noms des différences phonétiques réelles, particulièrement en ce qui concerne la première voyelle, laquelle a toujours été écrite « a »et prononcée « a »ou « é » par les Arabes dans le nom de Zenaga (Sanhadja, Sanaga, Zenaga), tandis qu’elle est nettement « o » ou « ou » dans Soninké.

Bibliographie

  • BATHILY, Abdoulaye, les Portes de l'or, Paris, Harmattan, 1989
  • BOYER, G. Un peuple de l'ouest africain : les Diawara, mémoire n° 29, IFAN, 1953
  • CLAUDE. Meillassaux et L. Doucouré, La légende de la dispersion des Kusa (épopée soninké), IFAN, 1967
  • CHARLES. Monteil, « La légende de Wagadou », in Bulletin de L’IFAN, n° 1- 2 Janv. Avril 1967
  • E. Pollet et G. Winter, Les Soninkés, Ed. Université de Bruxelles, 1971
  • DIAWARA, Mamadou, La graine de la parole, F. Steiner Suttgar, 1990
  • CLAUDE Meillassaux, La légende de Wagadou, l'origine des Soninkés n° 23, IFAN, 1953
  • CHARLES. Monteil, Mélanges soninké
  • BATHILY. A., Lexique soninké (Sarakolé)- français
  • MAURICE. Delafosse, Haut Sénégal- Niger, Maisonneuve et Larose
  • Qui sommes- nous, les Soninkés, Orature n°1
  • FOFANA, Samba, Structure et dynamique socio- politique en milieu soninké, mémoire de Maîtrise, université de Nouakchott, 2004
  • TANDIA, K. Aliou, Poésie orale et éducation traditionnelle, Dakar, NEA, 1999

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  • Lass24 16/09/2017 -22h32Bien que les soninkes etaient les residents de Assouan en Egypte ancienne , la langue elle meme semble remonter depuis la prehistoire . En effet les recherches les plus recentes du professeur clyde winters et Vomos Thoth parlant de la civilisation post -deluge qui s est formee dans le haut Sahara appellee Confederation du Maa .
    Cette confederation est fondee par les
    Maa- dinka (manding) et selon les traditionalistes soninkes , leur langue est a l origine de toutes les langues . Cette these peut etre soutenue par le fait le calendrier soninke commence par : gulli(depuis)
    Maata-Bare .
    M =eau , a =predicat actif du verbe etre , a (repetition) qui sugere une double action de l eau (pluie -inondation) comme le deluge
    Ta =origine 'source
    Ba =opposition
    Re =dieu
    Litteralement Maata -Bare signifie
    Double action de l eau (ciel et terre)
    qui a pour source l opposition a dieu
    : Cette periode appelee Deluge se situe a -20000 ans avant jesus christ . Que les autres ont pris a leur profit dans plusieurs livres , ce qui fait que beaucoup ont peur de la censure mais la science avance .
    Wassalam
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  • sylla Omar. les soninkho 10/05/2015 -01h08Les soninkho c'était des familles qui composent première maison de Rome leurs enceintes parvient au consulat en 290 et en 277 avant j-c mais qu'il fut moins connus par cette élévation que pars la fletrissure .mon grand écouté les carrières et politique en 105 avant j-c en Afrique en qualité de légat il mène alors les négociations secrètes qui conduiront son général Maurice a la victoire c'est cette Maurice que aujourd'hui on la falsifier il est devenue Mauritanie. Faite vous la recherche en cord vois y votre premier conclusion
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  • Gidimaxanke 12/05/2010 -13h45Des études récentes ont montré que les Habitants actuels d'Assouan en Egypte ont une très grande proximité culturelle et linguistique avec les Soninké!
    Leurs Anciens ont même affirmé que le lieu s'appelait Soni avant l'arrivée des Arabes en Egypte!
    Comme quoi l'hypothèse qui ferait descendre les Soninkés des Berbères me paraît fantaisite et dénué de tout sens , à la lumière même des dernières recherches historiographiques!
    Bonne continuation pour ton Site mon frère, et que Dieu nous éclaire de son infinie Sagesse!
  • Oumar 09/04/2010 -19h58Salut mon frere merci de toutes ses informations. Et du courage pour tout ce ke tu entreprend pour nous donner le peu de savoir sur nos anceintre. Peace & love a toi. Ton frere Baradji de Sinfra
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  • mahamadou kodo 16/03/2010 -16h24ça se voit que tu es un intellectuel organique en racinè dans le fond de ta culture.je ne peux que te souhaiter courage pour ta contribution à l'union des sonikès bien que nous soyons éparpiller un partout dans le monde nous avons tous en commun des traits généraux comme le gout de l'aventure la découverte la de l'autre, la discipline le respect de soi et de l'autre.mon frère,tu as du génie en toi liber le au service des soninkos.
  • SILLY bOSKO 14/03/2010 -14h22slt sur l'origine des soninkés il y'a aussi une autre version orale qui veut que l'origine soit dans la region d'assouan qe qui est à l'origine du nom "assouaninko" "soninko".
    Bref c'est de l'histoire donc les versions different donc utilisez une bonne dose d'objectivité.
  • SILLY BOSKO 13/03/2010 -16h36Courage cousin vas-y ça nous permet de nous connaitre comme on dit "connais-toi, toi même" "anandoutou"
  • daouda 12/03/2010 -22h41franchement ce tres tres bien d'avoir de site comme sa courage soum jusque au bout
  • TRA 12/03/2010 -20h15SLT ABDOULYE C TON FRERE ABDRAMANE TRAORE DE 92 SUIS TRES CONTENT
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